domingo, 7 de febrero de 2010

La discriminación es cosa de lingüistas

Muchas veces los seres humanos (también las mujeres y los niños) nos sentimos discriminados. Una mirada, un gesto de desprecio, un dedo medio levantado por sobre el puño cerrado, una mueca en el rostro, una huida escandalosa... son todos signos que demuestran el disgusto por la compañía de seres de otras tendencias, colores o religiones. Sin embargo, el rasgo que hace a los hombres diferentes de las bestias es la palabra, el lenguaje articulado.*
Es el motivo de esta nota llamar la atención sobre el papel que juega la lengua en el acto discriminatorio, más allá de las otras manifestaciones mencionadas más arriba.

Pongamos aquí el primer ejemplo: me animo a afirmar que, si tomamos 10 judíos, 8 se escandalizarán, 5 se ofenderán y 1 tomará un arma al grito de ¡mueran los malditos! en el preciso momento en que un interlocutor suyo pronuncie esa palabra, no ya en una conversación, sino que bastará con que lo haga incluso ante su presencia involuntaria. El presunto discriminador podrá subsanar su falta recurriendo a eufemismos como: semita (vocablo incorrecto, de origen lingüístico, que corresponde a una familia de lenguas de un mismo origen, entre las que incluso se encuentra el idioma árabe y que se extiende por asociación a los pueblos que hablan dichas lenguas), sionista (movimiento político que tampoco responde a un carácter racial y mucho menos representa a la totalidad del pueblo judío), tacaño (eufemismo poco aconsejable), o sujeto en condición de profeta ausente (y en estado expectante).
Luego de tanta digresión, permitasemé aventurar una hipótesis: la mismísima palabra "judío" tiene un carácter negativo por la alta susceptibilidad del pueblo judío, pero se ve exacerbado su rasgo discriminatorio (en idioma español) en la pronunciación de la consonante fricativa velar sorda, la vieja y querida "j". El aspecto áspero y rasposo como de garganta curtida a base de licor y tabaco de la consonante, le da a la palabra un efecto de agresividad, siendo más ofensiva cuanto más énfasis se pone en la pronunciación de esta primera letra.**

Veamos lo que sucede con otro pueblo discriminado, aunque de menor preocupación por el escándalo mediático: los chinos. El carácter explosivo de la consonante inicial (africada alveolar sorda) y el acento que recae en la primera sílaba hacen de la pronunciación de este gentilicio un posible acto discriminatorio. Aunque, para tranquilidad de los progresistas, hay que reconocer que el (aparente) carácter alegre de los orientales disminuye su efectividad.

Pasemos a otro caso: como bien dijo el "Negro" Fontanarrosa en su conferencia pronunciada en el III Congreso Internacional de la Lengua Española, no es lo mismo insultar a alguien (todo acto discriminatorio reviste un aspecto insultivo –si se me permite el neologismo) tratándolo de tonto o sonso, que diciendolé que es un pelotudo. Incluso es más ofensivo que boludo y como dice el dibujante: el secreto está en la 't', que es claramente mucho más expresiva, más potente que su hermana boba, la 'd'. Los remito a la siguiente experiencia:
Pronunciesé en voz alta la palabra pelotudo (si quiere puede probar diferentes entonaciones de la "t") y luego haga lo mismo con pelodudo. Verá como usted mismo se dará cuenta de la mayor eficacia del primer término y del asombroso parecido del segundo con una parodia del modo de pronunciación chino para la frase 'pelo duro', motivo de burla que tiene su razón en la inexistencia del sonido 'r' en la República Popular.
Por último –y no por falta de pruebas, sino para no alargar tediosamente una hipótesis que creo ya debidamente argumentada– tomemos otra palabra de uso discriminatorio: gordo. Exceptuando el uso cariñoso, afectivo, este adjetivo lleva su fuerza discriminante en el sonido 'r', que al igual que lo que sucede con el primer ejemplo, aumenta su agresividad cuanto más enfáticamente sea pronunciado. Compárese sino con sus equivalentes en otros idiomas: fat (en inglés), graisse (en francés), χοντρός (jontros, en griego), grasso (en italiano), todos con una consonante de carácter y luego contrastesé con el mismo término en vietnamita: béo, totalmente inocuo (a menos que venga un vietnamita a comprobar lo contrario).


PD: Previendo futuros comentarios, aclàresé la exclusión del altamente utilizado vocablo "negro". Como podrá notar cualquier persona (inclusive judíos, chinos, gordos y pelotudos) dicha palabra tiene una consonante de las que hemos llamado 'de carácter': negro. Sin embargo, la explicación de su omisión es simple: la consabida incapacidad intelectual del pueblo negro hace inútil la explicación anterior, con lo que la fuerza discriminatoria de la consonante es incomprensible para ellos. De ahí el innecesario énfasis en discriminarlos a través de recursos fonéticos.

* Este matasanos descree de esta teoría y adhiere a la de Unamuno: lo que diferencia a los humanos de los animales no es la razón, sino los sentimientos. Dice el filoencritor (intento de subsanar la ineptitud del castellano para crear palabras compuestas que señalara Borges) español en el primer capítulo de su Del sentimiento trágico de la vida:
El hombre, dicen, es un animal racional. No sé por qué no se haya dicho que es un animal afectivo o sentimental. Y acaso lo que de los demás animales le diferencia sea más el sentimiento que no la razón. Más veces he visto razonar a un gato que no reir o llorar. Acaso llore o ría por dentro, pero por dentro acaso también el cangrejo resuelva ecuaciones de segundo grado.
** La omisión en esta nota de la persecución política-religiosa sufrida en algunas ocasiones por los judíos (como tantos otros pueblos) es deliberada.

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